Acting | 表演
Games with the Acting mechanic require players to use some form of mime or mimicry to communicate with the other players.
Charades is probably the poster child for this mechanic, where one member of a team must use non-verbal clues to allow the other members to guess the solution.
Action / Movement Programming | 动作/移动编程
In programming, every player must secretly choose the next ‘n’ turns, and then each player plays their turns out according to the choices made. A game has the programming mechanic if it exists a choice of actions, preferably several, with a mechanism of executing those actions such that things could go spectacularly or amusingly wrong, because the status of the game changed in ways one did not anticipate, or hoped would not happen, before the action is executed.
Examples of games with a programming mechanic are RoboRally and Dungeon Lords.
指的是在编程阶段，所有玩家必须秘密地安排自己接下来一轮或数轮的行动，然后再公开地统一或轮流执行所有玩家决定的程序。一个用了这种机制的游戏经常会发生以下情况，就是当行动执行到某个步骤的时候就完全偏离了原本的计划，因为每一步执行的时候其他玩家的情况也在发生变化。 这种游戏的例子是《RoboRally》和《Dungeon Lords》。
Action Point Allowance System | 行动点数限制系统
In Action Point (AP) Allowance System games, each player is alloted a certain amount of points per round. These points can be spent on available actions, until the player does not have enough remaining to “purchase” any more actions. This method grants the player greater freedom over how to execute his or her options. Pandemic is an example of a game that uses this mechanic. In Pandemic, players are given 4 action points to be allocated between several actions: Movement, Air Travel, Special Action, and Special Ability.
The earliest example of a game listed on Boardgamegeek that uses AP’s is Special Train (1948).
Area Control / Area Influence | 地区控制/地区影响
The Area Control mechanic typically awards control of an area to the player that has the majority of units or influence in that area. As such, it can be viewed as a sub-category of Auction/Bidding in that players can up their “bids” for specific areas through the placement of units or meeples.
In El Grande, for instance, players earn their score in a region by having the most caballeros in that region.
For an overview and discussion of popular games with this mechanic, see: Area Control Games: Your favourites and why
地区控制机制的典型例子就是，哪个玩家在一个地区的兵力或者影响力更大，地区的控制权就归谁。因此，这种机制也可以看做是一种特殊的“拍卖/竞标”机制，因为玩家可以通过放置单位或指示物（meeple）来“竞标”。 举个例子，在《El Grande》中，在某个区域中拥有最多骑士的玩家就可以赚到这块区域的分数。 最后那个链接提供更多关于这个机制的讨论和介绍。
Area Enclosure | 圈地
In Area Enclosure games, players place or move pieces in order to surround as much area as possible with their pieces. The oldest and most famous Area Enclosure game is of course Go, but many newer examples also exist.
Area Enclosure is different than Area Control / Area Influence because players actually create the areas on a gridded board during the course of play, whereas in Area Control / Area Influence the actual areas are pre-existing and players are merely battling to see who can control the most of them.
Area Movement | 地区移动
Area movement means that the game board is divided into areas *of varying size* which can be moved out of or into in any direction as long as the areas are adjacent or connected. A classic example being Axis & Allies, in which land and water are divided into variable areas and boundaries that define connectivity between various areas.
Area movement is one way to handle movement on a game board. Two other commonly used ways are Grid Movement and Point to Point Movement. However, Area Movement is arguably just a form of Point to Point Movement, in which areas act as “points” with implicit “lines” connecting each area to all adjacent areas, as in Risk, which directly uses point-to-point movement for overwater movement.
地区移动的意思是，游戏图板被划分成了不同尺寸的几个地区，玩家的单位可以移动进入某个地区并进入相邻的地区，只要这两个地区相邻——尽管有时候视觉上看起来这两个地区相距很远。一个经典的例子是《Axis & Allies》，在这个游戏中陆地与水面被划分成了多种区域和边界，并且以此来确定区域是否相连。 地区移动是一种解决桌游移动的手段，除此之外还有两种手段：“网格移动”或“点对点移动”。然而，也有人认为地区移动只是点对点移动的一种形式，实际上每个地区都可以抽象成点，而边界则可以抽象成不同点的连接线，比如在《Risk》中，在水面上的移动就简化成了点对点的直接移动。
Area-Impulse / 地区脉冲
Players subdivide turns into impulses alternating between players which repeat until both players pass (or in some cases a sunset die roll ends the impulses catching one or both players off guard). In those impulses a group of units is once activated or gets to act collectively. However instead of the activated units being grouped by a certain radius from a leader the units activated are in an area (and thus the need for the impulse system to have areas, not hexes). The areas exist to define scope of activation on an impulse (as well as restrict what can be done on that impulse with respect to attack and movement range). Finally before the next turn of impulses units are reset regaining the ability to act.
Historically this began with the “Storm Over” area impulse series
Auction/Bidding | 拍卖/竞标
This mechanic requires you to place a bid, usually monetary, on items in an auction of goods in order to enhance your position in the game. These goods allow players future actions or improve a position. The auction consists of taking turns placing bids on a given item until one winner is established, allowing the winner to take control of the item being bid on. Usually there is a game rule that helps drop the price of the items being bid on if no players are interested in the item at its current price. In most games, once a winner for one item is done, if there are more items to be bid upon, another auction is held for those items. The process repeats until a game condition is met or items are exhausted in the auction phase of the game.
In Power Grid, for example, you start with no power plants and must win bids to be able to produce power. Winning a bid on a given power plant allows that player to add it to their current inventory of power plants and also allows for more power to be made in a given turn. In Vegas Showdown, players bid on rooms. such as a slot machine or a restaurant, in order to build a larger hotel with more prestige and value. Winning players pay for the room based on their bid and place it in their hotel. In both examples, bidding is done in a turn format and players have the option of passing on bids.
这个机制指的是你需要用一些资源（一般是钱，也可能是道具）来竞标一些货物，从而保持游戏中的优势地位。拍卖会轮流进行，直到某个出价最高的玩家获得货物。一般来说这种游戏中都会有规则来降低所有玩家都不感兴趣的货物的价格。大部分游戏中，一次竞标完成后，如果还有剩余的货物就会继续开始一轮新的竞标，直到达成某个条件或者货物都被卖光了。 在《Power Grid》中，玩家一开始没有发电厂，必须通过竞标来产生电力。赢得一个发电厂的竞标后，这个发电厂就会为你服务，在接下来的回合中产生更多电力。在《Vegas Showdown》中，玩家要竞标房间，比如老虎机或者客房，从而建造一个更气派、更有价值的大酒店。赢得竞标的玩家就把赢来的房间加入到自己的酒店中。在这两个例子中，竞标都是按照回合进行的，并且玩家在竞标中都有PASS的权力。 （译注：关于竞标的更多方式，建议查看Ernest Adams的《游戏设计基础》，里面列出了几乎所有的拍卖方式，而不只是这种轮流拍卖的模式，不过这种事最传统的方式）
Betting / Wagering | 打赌/下注
Betting/Wagering games are games that encourage or require players to bet money (real or in-game) on certain outcomes within the game. The betting itself becomes part of the game. This mechanic is most commonly associated with Poker.
The Commodity Speculation mechanic is also a type of betting, in which in-game money is bet on different commodities in hope that that particular commodity will become the most valuable as the game progresses.
Campaign / Battle Card Driven | 战役/战斗卡牌驱动
The Campaign/Battle Card Driven mechanic is a relatively recent development in wargames that focuses the players’ actions on cards they have in their hand. The very basic idea is that performing a single action uses a single card. Games where cards are used to determine the outcome of battles do not use this mechanic.
Card Drafting | 卡牌选秀（也有翻译成轮抽的）
Card drafting games are games where players pick cards from a limited subset, such as a common pool, to gain some immediate advantage or to assemble hands of cards that are used to meet objectives within the game. Ticket to Ride is a well-known card drafting game.
Games where cards are simply drawn from a pile are not card drafting games – drafting implies that players have some sort of choice. In Ticket to Ride, players can choose to draw random cards. If they could only draw random cards however, it wouldn’t be drafting.
卡牌选秀游戏中玩家要从一个有限的集合中挑选卡牌（比如从一个公用的牌库中），来立刻获得某些好处或者集齐某些卡牌来完成游戏中的目标。《Ticket to Ride》是一个很有名的卡牌选秀游戏。 只是单纯的从牌库中抓牌的游戏不是卡牌选秀游戏——选秀的意思是，玩家必须拥有某种选择的策略。在《Ticket to Ride》中，玩家是可以选择是否抽取随机卡牌的，如果他们没得选必须抽的话，就不是“选秀”了。
Chit-Pull System | 版块抽取系统
Used in war games to address the problem of simulating simultaneous action on the battlefield and issues of command and control. In such a system the current player randomly draws a chit or counter identifying a group of units which may now be moved. Schemes include moving any units commanded by a particular leader, moving units of a particular quality or activating units not for movement but for fighting. This mechanism is often associated with designer Joseph Miranda who has used it in many of his games.
板块通常指小的长方形或正方形厚纸板，上面有某些游戏相关的信息。板块抽取系统指的是把一定数量的板块先放到一个容器里，通常是一个布袋或者一个杯子。在游戏过程中，游戏者从容器中随机抽出板块，抽出的板块会触发某些游戏效果。这种机制实际上只是一种引入随机因素的方式。 与另一种随机因素引入方式“掷骰”相比，板块抽取系统有很多不同之处： 第一个区别，骰子并不“记得”曾经发生过的结果；每次掷骰，结果的概率是不变的。与此相对，一个板块只要抽出来，它就从容器中被移除了，因此这个板块对应的事件就不会再次发生。板块还可以用来设置乱序。把一系列事件做成对应板块，通过板块抽取，就能打乱这些事件的发生顺序。等全部板块抽完，可以把它们再放回容器进行下一轮抽取。 第二个区别，骰子面积小，每个面上存在的信息有限。板块面积大，往往有更多信息。而且由于板块往往放在玩家身边。或者直接放在游戏版图上，这些信息可以一直保留。而骰子要反复使用，结果信息无法保留（当然也有例外）。由于板块是纸板做成，它有两个面，可以用来携带不同的信息。虽然卡牌也有类似的特点，但板块还能直接放在游戏版图上当作标志物，这是板块和卡牌的区别。 第三个区别，板块手感好，许多玩家喜欢这一点 注意，如果一个游戏几乎完全是依赖于板块而存在，这类游戏往往称作板块放置类游戏。典型例子是卡卡颂Carcassonne。在板块放置类游戏中，板块构成游戏版图，而不是用来产生随机结果。
Co-operative Play | 合作
Co-operative play encourages or requires players to work together to beat the game. There is little or no competition between players. Either the players win the game by reaching a pre-determined objective, or all players lose the game, often by not reaching the objective before a certain event happens.
For more info see:
though note that that wiki’s definition still defines as co-operative play one that may have one or more “traitors” who along with the game system itself may win or lose.
Commodity Speculation | 商品投机
Commodity Speculation is a subcateogry of Betting/Wagering, in which in-game money is bet on different commodities in hope that that particular commodity will become the most valuable as the game progresses. Often the values of the commodities are continually changing throughout the game, and the players buy and sell the commodities to make money off of their investment.
Commodity Speculation includes both Investment games in which players have some indirect control over asset values, but have a hard time hurting others without hurting themselves; and Collusion games, in which players have huge direct control in manipulating asset values, forcing players to help others and manage shifting alliances.
Crayon Rail System | 轨道系统
The Crayon Rail System is a subcategory of Route/Network Building. Types of these games use crayon or other non-permanent methods of making connecting lines on a board, often eraseable. The most popular Crayon Rail games are part of the Empire Builder system.
Deck / Pool Building | 构筑牌库
Deck / Pool Building is a mechanism in which players start the game with a pre-determined set of cards / player pieces and add and change those pieces over the course of the game. Many deck-building games provide the players with a currency that they use to “buy” new items that are integrated into the deck or pool. These new resources generally expand the capabilities of the player and allow the player to build an “engine” to drive their future plays in the course of the game.
This mechanism describes something that happens in play during the game as a function of the game, not customization of the game from a body of cards prior to play.
Useful lists on the subject:
构筑牌库游戏指的是玩家在游戏开始的时候有指定的一桃卡牌或配件，然后可以随着游戏的过程要替换或者获取更多的卡牌或配件的游戏。很多构筑牌库的游戏中玩家有货币用来购买新的组件来构筑卡牌。这些新的资源一般会提高玩家的能力，使得玩家在今后的游戏中更为强大。 注意，构筑牌库这种机制指的是游戏的过程中的玩法，玩家的目标是构筑一套牌，而不是事先准备好一组牌再进行游戏。（译注：打了CCG的脸！这种游戏其实叫DBG，Deck Building Game）
Dice Rolling | 掷骰子
Dice rolling is a game by itself see Yahtzee or Craps but as a game mechanic dice rolling in a game can be used for many things, randomness being the most obvious. Dice can also be used as counters; start at 6 (for a normal die: singular for dice) and turn it to 5 at the end of a round, single player’s turn etc. The dice themselves can be unique and different sizes, shapes and colors to represent different things.
Grid Movement | 网格移动
The Grid Movement occurs when pawns move on the grid in many directions. Usually the grid is square (like in Chess) or hexagonal (Abalone).
In a game there can be many pawns (like in Chess or Checkers) or only one (like the bishop in Fresco).
Hand Management | 手牌管理
Hand management games are games with cards in them that reward players for playing the cards in certain sequences or groups. The optimal sequence/grouping may vary, depending on board position, cards held and cards played by opponents. Managing your hand means gaining the most value out of available cards under given circumstances. Cards often have multiple uses in the game, further obfuscating an “optimal” sequence.
Hand management has no relationship to action/dexterity.
Hex-and-Counter | 六向计数法
Classic wargame mechanic, played with ‘Counters’ on a map with an Hexagonal grid allowing to move the counters in more directions (6) as opposed to a square grid with only four directions.
Counters are commonly thick cardboard chit, with printed attributes and identification.
将计数条改为六边形小方块组成的大区域，将计数指示物在该区域中移动的指示方法。 六向计数法通常用在战棋中，其最大的优势就是将对计数的影响量由单一改成了多个，由于计数指示物不再是双方向移动，而是6方向移动，可以指明更多的作战状况。 最早的六向计数法出现在《作战演习（Manöver）》（1941）这个款游戏中。
Line Drawing | 划线
Games using the line drawing mechanic involve the drawing of lines in one way or another.
Memory | 记忆
Games that use the Memory mechanic require players to recall previous game events or information in order to reach an objective.
Modular Board | 模块化桌板
Play occurs upon a modular board that is composed of multiple pieces, often tiles or cards.
In many games, board placement is randomized, leading to different possibilities for strategy and exploration.
Some games in this category have multiple boards which are not used simultaneously, preserving table space. Unused boards remain out of play until they are required.
Paper-and-Pencil | 纸与铅笔
The game is developed using paper and pen to mark and save responses or attributes that to the end of the game are used to score points and determine the winner.
A game that merely keeps track of score on a sheet of paper does not use a paper-and-pencil mechanism.
Partnerships | 合伙
Games with partnerships offer players a set of rules for alliances and teams. Partners are often able to win as a team, or penalities are enforced for not respecting alliances.
Fury of Dracula has initial teams that cannot be changed midgame.
Dune has a strict set of rules regarding alliances and the breaking of them.
指的是有规则把玩家划分成小组或同盟的游戏，伙伴之间可以作为一个小队一起获胜，或者由于不尊重盟友而遭到惩罚。《Fury of Dracula》在游戏一开始就有一个小队，并且玩的时候不可以更改。《Dune》有着明确的关于结盟和解盟的规则集。
Pattern Building | 构筑样式
Pattern Building is a system where players place game components in specific patterns in order to gain specific or variable game results. For example: placing chips on 2, 4, 6, 8 on a board gets the player an action card they can use later in the game.
Pattern Recognition | 识别样式
Markers, usually with a color or pattern, are placed or added on different random or pre-determined locations relative to a board or the markers themselves. As the markers move during play the player has to recognize a known pattern created by the markers to gain a good, points or win the game.
不同颜色或形状的棋子（也可以是卡片等）被随机放到场上，玩家通过快速判定某一种几何图形或固定组合是否达成来获得特殊效果，这样的机制叫做模式辨析。 模式辨析与模式构建最大的差别在于，棋子（或卡片等）的放置是出于某种随机条件，还是玩家主观思维。模式辨析主旨在于培养玩家的洞察力，希望玩家能够对于某种组合保持一定的敏感度。 虽然BGG上记录的最早模式辨析游戏是西式骨牌，但是我个人并不认同，我认为最早的应该是《宾果（Bingo）》（1530）。在这个常见于各大赌场、彩票的经典游戏中，玩家随机获得一张数字的排列表，然后通过叫号的方式将5个数字排成一列。听起来是一个模式构建，但实际上是模式辨析。因为玩家要做的并不是尽快构建自己需要的组合，而是去发现当前已有的数字中，哪一些数字可以组成5个一列，并且其他玩家无法同时达成目标。
Pick-up and Deliver | 装载与运输
This mechanic usually requires players to pick up an item or good at one location on the playing board and bring it to another location on the playing board. Initial placement of the item can be either predetermined or random. The delivery of the good usually gives the player money to do more actions with. In most cases, there is a game rule or another mechanic that determines where the item needs to go.
Empire Builder is a classic pickup-and-deliver game from 1980 that remains popular today. In this game, players build railroads between cities, and move trains around on the track. Players hold contracts specifying that specific cities demand specific types of goods. To fulfill a contract, a player must travel to a city where that good is available, pick it up, and deliver it to the destination city. When the player completes the contract, the player receives money as specified on the contract.
For an overview and discussion of popular games with this mechanic, see: Pickup-and-Deliver Games: Your favourites and why
转载与运输机制一般要求玩家从桌板上的某个地方拿上一些道具或物品，然后把这些东西运送到其他地方。货物的初始位置可能是安排好的，也可能是随机的。运输货物一般能带给玩家一些好处，比如赚一些钱。在大部分这种游戏中，货物要运输到哪里都是有明确的规则规定的。 《Empire Builder》是一个经典的装载与运输游戏，自1980年发行以来一直很受欢迎。在这个游戏中，玩家要在城市之间建造铁路，然后沿着铁路去运营一些货火车。玩家手中有一些合同，上面是某个城市要求某个类型的货物。玩家完成合同后就能赚到合同上写明的钱。
Player Elimination | 歼灭玩家
Player elimination occurs in multiple player games (>3) when a player can be eliminated from the game and the play continues without the eliminated player. The typical examples of games that provides elimination are Diplomacy or Risk (where a player may be defeated) or Monopoly (where a player may go bankrupt and thus be eliminated).
Player elimination does not include two player only games where the goal is to defeat the opponent, e.g. Chess
Point to Point Movement | 点对点移动
On a board of a game with point-to-point movement, there are certain spots that can be occupied by markers or figurines, e. g. cities on a map. These points are connected by lines, and movement can only happen along these lines. It is not enough that two points are next to or close to each other; if there is no connecting line between them, a player cannot move his or her piece from one to the other.
With point-to-point movement, you do not have a division of the board into areas which can be moved out of or into freely (like with Axis & Allies). Neither do you have a board completely covered in squares (like with Chess) or hexagons (like with Tide of Iron) that allow unrestricted or nearly unrestricted movement in any direction and to any square or hex.
Unlike these counterexamples, point-to-point movement arbitrarily restricts areas on the board that markers or figurines can occupy, and it also arbitrarily restricts the ways that these points may be reached. Oftentimes, this allows for interesting strategies.
Non-intuitive example for point-to-point movement: Risk. While Risk appears to be an Area Movement game like Axis & Allies, it is actually a point-to-point movement game, due to impassible water areas requiring overwater line connections (e.g. Japan, Brazil, Australia).
Pictured above: Point-to-point movement in Friedrich.
一些桌游中有点对点移动的机制，这种游戏中，图板上的某些点（比如城市）可以被指示物或者棋子占领，然后点与点之间由线连接，单位的移动只能沿着这些线进行。两个点只要是连在一起的，相距的距离就被视为一样的，不管视觉上看起来两个点相距多远，而如果两个点没相连，玩家就没法把棋子从一个点移动到另一个点伤。（译注：《军棋》是个很好的点对点移动的例子。还有《瘟疫公司》的空港/海港） 在点对点移动的游戏中，桌板不会被划分成可以进入或离开的区域（就是《Axis & Allies》中的那种），也没有那种全都是可以按照某种方向从一个四边形或六边形格子移动到另一个格子的桌板（比如《国际象棋》或是《Tide of Iron》）。
Press Your Luck | 撑死胆大/得寸进尺（译注：或者干脆叫“贪的一逼”？）
Games where you repeat an action (or part of an action) until you decide to stop due to increased (or not) risk of losing points or your turn. Press Your Luck games include both Risk Management and Risk Valuation games, in which risk is driven by the game mechanisms and valuing how much other players value what you also want, respectively.
This mechanic is also called push your luck.
Here’s a description of the category by Bruno Faidutti:
Double or Quits, Keep going or stop, cash your gains or bet them. The idea is not new. Many gambling games, such as Black Jack, make an intensive use of it, as well as some traditional dice game – and Pass the Pigs is only a modern version of those. This system is also used in many TV games, where the winner can either leave with his gains, either answer one more question at the risk of losing everything he won so far. Like in Luigi Comencini’s Scopone Scientifico, if you never stop, you always end losing. This system is also very efficient in board and cardgames, since it generates a high tension, and some anguish when rolling some more dice or drawing one more card. The best known “double or quits” game is probably Sid Sackson’s Can’t Stop, a clever dice game figuring, in the last edition, mountaineers so impatient to reach the summit that they usually end up falling down. It’s even trickier when all players are aboard the same ship, not knowing if, or when, it will sink. Time to leave or not ? That’s what happen in Aaron Weissblum’s Cloud Nine, as well as in Diamant, a game I designed together with Alan R. Moon.
Here’s the introduction of the Jeopardy dice games from Reiner Knizia’s Dice Games Properly Explained:
You focus on progessing and maximising your results. But the stakes are rising. If things go wrong, you lose it all. Great risks bring great rewards – or utter defeat!
Disaster strikes in many different ways. More than ever, you need to weigh up the potential gains and losses. Rolling specific numbers or reaching certain totals may catch you out. You see disaster looming – but can you escape? Other games allow you to continue throwing as long as you keep your options open. Know when to stop and secure your results. If you get greedy and your luck fails, you are out. You need to make the right decisions and be lucky, too.
撑死胆大的这种机制，指的是玩家要重复一个动作（或者一个动作的某个部分），并且在重复的过程中，风险会变得越来越高，直到你由于觉得太危险而决定停止的这么一种机制。这种机制同时包括“风险管理”和“风险评估”两种子类型。 （译注：AppStore上的《Dead Man’s Draw》是一个典型的这种游戏。每张卡牌上面都标有分数，卡牌有10个类型，玩家在自己的回合可以从牌库中掀开任意张卡牌，每次掀牌后都可以决定是拿走所有已经掀开的卡牌并且获得这些牌代表的分数，还是继续掀开牌——而一旦玩家掀开的牌中出现相同类型的，就被算作BUST，玩家会损失所有这些已经掀开的卡牌，一分也得不到。）
Rock-Paper-Scissors | 石头剪子布（有时也会被缩写为RPS系统）
Rock-Paper-Scissors can fall into a subcategory of Simultaneous Action Selection or Trick-Playing. However, simultaneity is not the most defining quality. Turn-about games also frequently employ this mechanic.
Its defining feature is that there is a circular hierarchy for which pieces win against or capture others. That is, while A might beat B, and B beat C, C beats A.
The name derives from the well-known children’s game where
Scissors cuts Paper
Paper covers Rock
Rock crushes Scissors
But can refer to any game with non-transitive mechanics, e.g.
Role Playing | 角色扮演
Some board games incorporate elements of role playing. It can be that players control a character that improves over time. It can also be a game that encourages or inspires Storytelling. This mechanic can be viewed as an extension of Variable Player Powers.
Roll / Spin and Move | 用骰子/轮盘移动
Roll / Spin and move games are games where players roll dice or spin spinners and move playing pieces in accordance with the roll.
This term is often used derogatorily to imply that there is no thought involved. Roll and move games like Backgammon, however, contain tactical elements.
Route/Network Building | 构筑线路/网络
Route/Network Building games feature network(s) (interconnected lines with nodes) using owned, partially owned or neutral pieces, with an emphasis on building the longest chain and/or connecting to new areas. Although arguably a separate group, Connection games, in which players connect fixed points on the board, are also included among Route/Network Building games.
Secret Unit Deployment | 秘密安排单位
Secret unit deployment games are games that contain hidden information. Only the player controlling certain playing pieces has perfect information about the nature (or even the whereabouts) of those pieces. This mechanic is often used in wargames to simulate “fog of war”.
Set Collection | 收集成套道具
The primary goal of a set collection mechanic is to encourage a player to collect a set of items. For example, players collect and harvest different types of beans in Bohnanza, and they collect Monuments in Ra.
Simulation | 模拟
Simulation games are games that attempt to model actual events or situations.
Simultaneous Action Selection | 同时动作选择
The simultaneous action selection mechanic lets players secretly choose their actions. After they are revealed, the actions resolve following the ruleset of the game.
Singing | 唱歌
Games that use a Singing mechanic require players to hum or sing familiar songs in order to fulfill certain game requirements.
Stock Holding | 控股
Stock holding is a subcategory of Commodity Speculation, in which instead of purchasing or selling an entire commodity, players purchase and sell (or hold) a share in a given company, commodity or nation.
Notable examples include Acquire, where players can purchase shares of companies, and benefit if those companies grow before being bought out, and Imperial, where players are purchasing bonds in European nations which grant not only a dividend and points at the end of the game but also the right to control that nation’s actions for as long as you are the majority bondholder.
Storytelling | 讲故事
You are supplied with basic concepts, letters, or pictures with which to tell a story. The pieces you are given have to be part of the story.
Take That | 接招
In these games each player has some sort of holdings on the table. Holdings are often played in front of them from a hand of cards and/or assigned to them at the game start. These holdings serve as targets for other players to attempt to destroy. The goal is generally to avoid having all your holdings destroyed while at the same time playing to destroy all the holdings of the others players. In most cases the direction of destruction is usually left to player discretion. This frequently results in an encouraged free-for-all and/or an engineered last man standing scenario.
Time Track | 时间轨迹
A time track mechanism is a variable player-turn order mechanism by which the player who is last on the time track goes next. The function of this mechanism can allow a player to have multiple sequential turns due to being last after each one. The basic premise is that you can choose to do a longer, slower task in the game, but in the meantime, a player taking shorter, quicker actions might change the “landscape” of the playfield. It is arguably a derivative of “action point” systems, except in the case of time tracks, the player doesn’t have a fixed number of points she can or must use on her turn.
In some time track games, the active player must stop as soon as an action moves her out of the last position. In the ones with a loop for a time track, players tend to be restricted from lapping the track on one go.
早期的桌游，主要分为即时制（Real-time）和回合制（take turns），即时制基本是欢乐游戏，玩家同时行动，互动性极强，用于活跃气氛，但策略不足，操作也混乱； 回合制则是玩家轮流进行回合，互动性相比有所下降，但是可以欢乐可以策略，操作系统连贯。 但是某些玩家反映，游戏中除了能反映出天气变化，经济规律等因数外，能反映出玩家对时间观念的理解能力就更好了。一般来说，即时制是优先选择的表达手法，在双方未知对手策略前微调自己的时间分配以达到更高的分数（或者胜利）。 问题是，即时制过于混乱，比较难表达。于是即时制和回合制结合的新机制——时间回合制（time track）就诞生了。玩家通常都在游戏中各自有固定的虚拟时间以供使用，用到你叫pass为止。然后，所剩时间最多的玩家成为下一个玩家。（就是说，时间多的玩家甚至可以进行多个回合）。 这个机制是目前解决桌游即时性不强的唯一方法。代表作有《家族兴旺》，《底比斯的远方》，《暗夜对决》等。当然，如果你能想出更好的解决办法，新机制就诞生了！ （博主注：AppStore上的《Space Wolf》就采用了这个机制，《弹弹堂》等游戏也采用了这种机制。）
Tile Placement | 瓦片放置
Tile Placement games feature placing a piece to score VPs, with the amount often based on adjacent pieces or pieces in the same group/cluster, and keying off non-spatial properties like color, “feature completion”, cluster size etc.
A classic example is Carcassonne, where a player randomly draws a tile and place it next to other tiles and has a chance to place a meeple on the tile just played.
Trading | 交易
In games with a trading mechanic, the players can exchange game items between each other. For instance, players trade for different types of beans in Bohnanza, while they trade resources in The Settlers of Catan.
Trick-taking | 钓鱼
Trick Taking is a game mechanism used in card games.
Each player plays in turn order one card (or, in some games, a series, such as a pair or straight) from their hand face up onto the table; the group of cards played is named a “trick”. According with the rules of the game, one player wins the trick and captures all of the cards in the trick. The object of most trick taking games is to capture tricks or point scoring cards in tricks or occasionally avoid winning tricks.
The most common way to win a trick is by having the card with highest value of the suit that was led, but many classical card games use the “trump” system (where the certain cards, usually those of a designated suit, will win the trick if they are played.) Occasionally there is a round of bidding to determine this trump suit.
In many trick taking games (though not all), players are required to “follow suit”, i.e. play a card of the same suit as was led if they have one. If they do not have a matching card, they must play another card from their hand.
是卡牌游戏中使用的一种机制。 每个玩轮流把手中的卡牌按照某种方式（比如单张，或者出对子、顺子等）出到桌面上，并且一直堆积在桌面上，这些不断堆积的卡牌就叫做一条”鱼”。根据游戏的规则，某个玩家会通过某种方式赢得一条鱼，然后获得构成这个鱼的所有卡牌。大部分这种游戏中的目标就是通过钓鱼来获得最多（或最少）的分数。 玩家赢得一条鱼的最常见方式是打出一系列卡牌中的分值最高的，不过也有很多经典游戏使用一种“王牌系统”，一般某个指定的类型或者某张卡牌一旦打出后就会赢得所有的鱼。有的时候会有一轮出价来决定哪个类型的牌成为王牌。 很多这种游戏中，玩家都必须要跟牌，比如如果有某个类型的牌就必须出，若没有这个类型的，就得出一张其他类型的。 （译注：拱猪）
Variable Phase Order | 可变的阶段顺序
Variable Phase Order implies that turns may not be played the same way as before and / or after.
Using Puerto Rico as an example, every turn is different. Depending on who starts selecting the roles and what roles they take, you may have to play the ‘build’ action sooner than you’d wish. In other games, you may be denied from taking certain action.
Most games with limited action and any game without a static game turn order fall under this ‘mechanism’. Use of variable player turn order are not Variable Phase Order games.
指的是玩家在自己的回合中，执行不同动作的顺序可能发生改变的机制。比如《Puerto Rico》，每一回合的动作顺序都不同，依据玩家选择角色的顺序和每个玩家的角色，你有可能可以更早地执行“建造”动作。 大部分限制好了玩家的动作，但没有固定死这些动作顺序的游戏都属于这个机制。注意，按照不固定顺序轮询玩家回合的游戏不属于这一种。这种说的是玩家回合中的不同动作的顺序可以改变。
Variable Player Powers | 可变的玩家力量（译注：或者叫不对称游戏就好）
Variable Player Powers is a mechanic that grants different abilities and/or paths to victory to the players. To illustrate, here are some notable examples.
In Ogre, one player controls a single powerful piece, and the other plays many weaker units. The net effect is a balanced game.
In Cosmic Encounter, each player is assigned a random special ability at the beginning of the game. Although each player has the same victory goal (control five non-home colonies), their abilities enable differing means to the end.
In Here I Stand, each player controls a political power with unique ways to score victory points. Some focus on military conquest, some on religious influence, etc.
Also, player powers may change throughout the game as in Small World or Sunrise City.
指的是不同玩家拥有不同能力，或者有不同获胜手段的游戏。比如在《Ogre》中，一个玩家控制一个很强大的棋子，其他玩家控制很多很弱的棋子，但最终游戏还是平衡德。在《Cosmic Encounter》中，每个玩家在游戏开始时会随机获得一种特殊能力，虽然每个玩家的获胜条件都相同，但由于特殊能力的不同，获胜的手段也不同。在《Here | Stand》中，每个玩家控制一个政权，获得分数的方式各不相同。有些专注于武力征服，有些则是宗教影响等等。另外，在《Small World》或者《Sunrise City》中，玩家的能力会随着游戏进程而改变。
Voting | 投票
Voting is game mechanic where votes are cast to determine the results of certain situations.
Worker Placement | 放置工人
More precisely referred to as “action drafting”, this mechanism requires players to draft individual actions from a set that is available to all players. In a given round, drafting is done one-at-a-time and in turn order until all players have had a chance to draft individual actions. There is usually(*) a limit on the number of times a single action may be drafted each round. Once that limit is reached, an action can no longer be taken until a subsequent round or until the action space is no longer occupied by a worker. As such, not all actions can be taken by all players in a given round, and action ‘blocking’ occurs.
Actions are commonly drafted by the placement of game pieces or tokens on the selected actions. Each player usually has a limited number of pieces with which to participate in the process. From a thematic standpoint, the game pieces which players use to select actions often represent workers of any given trade (this category of mechanism, however, is not necessarily limited to or by this thematic representation). In other words, players often thematically “place workers” to show which actions have been drafted by individual players. For example, in Agricola you start with two family members who can be placed on action spaces to collect resources or take certain actions like building fences. When someone places a piece on a given space, that action is no longer available until the next round.
Keydom, which was published in 1998, is widely recognised as the first of the worker placement genre of games. Keydom is referred to as such in leading German Games magazines Spielbox, issues: 3/2010 p49, 6/2011 p1 (editorial) and 1/2014 p33 and in Spielerei 2011 #92. Tom Rosen’s 18-Oct-08 article ‘Grandfather of Worker Placement’ http://games.fooville.net/nycgamer-article-Grandfather.html refers to Keydom’s status in the development of worker placement games, as does Agricola’s designer Uwe Rosenberg in the 14-Dec-07 geeklist ‘The Agricola Advent Calendar’ http://www.boardgamegeek.com/geeklist/27177/item/552025#item552025 In p96 of Stewart Woods’s book ‘Eurogames’, McFarland 2012 – reference is made to Keydom being the first of the worker placement genre. In the UK Games Expo 2013 programme article p11-13 ‘My Life in Games’ Keydom’s designer Richard Breese explains how the worker placement idea oriinated: ‘1995 was [also] the year of Klaus Teuber’s seminal game Settlers of Catan. I enjoyed Settlers, but was not over fond of the luck factor inherent in the dice rolling. I wanted to achieve the same effect but without the dice, just by direct placement of the workers on the board. This became the central mechanic to the Keydom …’
Early design experiments with the mechanism include Way Out West (2000) and Bus (1999). Well known examples of worker placement include Agricola (2007), Caylus (2005) and Stone Age (2008), the latter being designed by Bernd Brunnhofer who is head of Hans im Glück and who was instrumental in re-issuing Keydom in the reworked and rethemed version Aladdin’s Dragons (2000).
(*)The use of the word “usually” in this context is a somewhat controversial point of discussion. There are many who feel that ‘action blocking’ is a defining element of worker placement. In that case, there must always be a limit on the number of times a single action may be drafted each round.